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Encyclopedia > Luger pistol
Luger Pistol

P08 of the German Army
Type Service pistol
Place of origin Germany
Service history
In service Germany 1904 - 1945
Switzerland 1900 - 1945
Used by Germany, Switzerland
Wars World War I and World War II
Production history
Designer Georg Luger
Manufacturer Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken
Produced 1900 - 1942
Specifications
Weight 1.92 lbs.
Length 8.75 in.
Barrel length 98 mm - 203 mm(3.9 - 8.02 in.)

Cartridge 7.65 mm Parabellum, 9 mm Parabellum
Feed system 8 round detachable box magazine
Sights Iron

The Parabellum-Pistole (Pistol Parabellum), popularly known as the Luger pistol is a semi-automatic self-loading pistol patented by Georg Luger in 1898 and manufactured by Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) starting in 1900. It was a popular military and civilian handgun of the first half of the 20th century.[1] The basic design and its variants are also known under a variety of civilian and military designations (e.g. Ordonnanzpistole 00, and P08). Image File history File links DWM_4_inch_Navy_Luger_859. ... Army The German Army (German: Heer  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... A Service Pistol is any handgun (revolver or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel. ... Year 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Georg Luger, 1906 Georg Johann Luger (born March 6, 1849 in Steinach am Brenner, Austria - died December 22, 1923) was an Austrian designer of the famous Luger pistol. ... Deutsche Waffen und Munitions Fabriken (German Weapons and Munitions Works), known as DWM, was an arms company in Imperial Germany created when Ludwig Loewe & Company merged with several other companies. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The 7. ... ball and hollowpoint 9mm Luger rounds are popular handgun ammunition. ... A 30-round STANAG magazine. ... Looking down the iron sight of an M15A4 Carbine (a civilian copy of the M4 carbine) The term iron sights refers to the open, unmagnified aiming system used to assist the aiming of a variety of devices, usually those intended to launch projectiles, such as firearms, airguns, and crossbows; they... A Semi-automatic (also known as Self-loading) pistol is a type of handheld firearm, a kind of pistol. ... Georg Luger, 1906 Georg Johann Luger (born March 6, 1849 in Steinach am Brenner, Austria - died December 22, 1923) was an Austrian designer of the famous Luger pistol. ... Deutsche Waffen und Munitions Fabriken (German Weapons and Munitions Works), known as DWM, was an arms company in Imperial Germany created when Ludwig Loewe & Company merged with several other companies. ...


In modern times it has been popularized through its use by Germany during World War I and World War II, though it was also used by many other countries. It is notable in firearms history for being the pistol for which the 9 mm Parabellum cartridge was originally developed, though the Luger pistol was first introduced with a 7.65 mm Parabellum cartridge and has also been chambered for other cartridges, including the .45 ACP. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... ball and hollowpoint 9mm Luger rounds are popular handgun ammunition. ... The 7. ... The . ...


The Luger pistol is a semi-automatic toggle lock pistol based on principles by Hiram Maxim that is fed by a removable magazine, and that operates on the short-recoil principle. Designed by Georg Luger, it was an evolution of the earlier Hugo Borchardt design, the Borchardt C-93 (introduced in 1898). A Semi-automatic (also known as Self-loading) pistol is a type of handheld firearm, a kind of pistol. ... In firearms terminology, an action is the system of operation that the firearm employs to seal the breech (in a breech-loading firearm), and to load consecutive rounds. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Hiram S. Maxim Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (February 4, 1840 - November 24, 1916) was the inventor of the Maxim Gun in 1884, the first portable, fully automatic machine gun. ... The short-recoil system of operation is that which uses the recoil of the firearm to function (that is, to lock/unlock the firearms breech, to extract and eject the cartridge case from the firearm, to feed a new cartridge into the chamber, and to ready the firing mechanism). ... Georg Luger, 1906 Georg Johann Luger (born March 6, 1849 in Steinach am Brenner, Austria - died December 22, 1923) was an Austrian designer of the famous Luger pistol. ... Hugo Borchardt (June 6, 1844-May 8, 1924) was a firearms inventor and engineer, born in Magdeburg, Germany. ... Borchardt C-93 Borchardt C-93 in its holster The Borchardt C-93 pistol was designed by Hugo Borchardt in 1893. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Design

The Luger pistol was manufactured to very high standards and thus has a very long service life, in excess of 100 years with proper maintenance and care, albeit dependent on the number of rounds fired. Luger pistols are extremely accurate due to precise engineering, ergonomic grip angle and shape, decent trigger pull, and a design that allows the barrel to remain aligned with the axis of the frame during use. This is in contrast to some other designs which cause the barrel to tip during recoil, such as Browning's M1911. Luger pistols function reliably when properly maintained, but their close mechanical tolerances are not suited to dirty battlefield conditions since much of their firing mechanism is exposed. Many soldiers who have used the Luger Pistol praise the 55 degree angle of the handle, as they find this handle configuration to be ergonomic and intuitive. The barrel of a firearm is the tube, usually metal, through which a controlled explosion is released in order to propel a projectile out of the end at great speed. ... In firearms terminology, the receiver is the part of the firearm that houses the operating parts of the gun. ... John Moses Browning (January 21, 1855 – November 26, 1926), born in Ogden, Utah, was an American firearms designer who developed myriad varieties of weapons, cartridges, and gun mechanics, many of which are used in the U.S. military and elsewhere to this day. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ...


Operation

The Luger uses a jointed arm mechanism (the joint is called a knee, or in German Kniegelenk (knee joint)); it is also called a toggle-action, as opposed to the slide actions of almost every other semi-automatic pistol. The toggle-action mechanism is explained as follows: after a round is fired the barrel and toggle assembly (both locked together at this point) travel rearward due to recoil. After moving roughly one-half inch (13 mm) rearward, the toggle strikes a cam built into the frame, causing the knee joint to hinge and the toggle and breach assembly to unlock. At this point the barrel stops its rearward movement (it impacts the frame), but the toggle and breach assembly continue moving (bending the knee joint) due to momentum, extracting the spent casing from the chamber and ejecting it. The toggle and breach assembly subsequently travel forward (under spring tension) and the next round from the magazine is loaded into the chamber. The entire sequence occurs in a fraction of a second.


In World War I, as submachine guns were found to be efficient in trench warfare, experiments with converting various types of pistols to machine pistols (Reihenfeuerpistolen) were conducted. Among those the Luger pistol (German Army designation Pistole 08) was examined; however, unlike the Mauser C96 which was converted in great numbers to Reihenfeuerpistole, the Luger proved to have an excessive rate of fire when used in full-automatic mode. The MP5, a famous submachine gun, sees widespread use amongst those that can afford it. ... An NRA soldier with a gas mask and a Mauser M1932. ... The Rate of fire is the speed at which a specific firearm or artillery piece can operate. ...


Service

'Artillery Luger' Lange Pistole 08 with 32 round Trommelmagazine 08 and removable stock.
'Artillery Luger' Lange Pistole 08 with 32 round Trommelmagazine 08 and removable stock.

The Swiss Army evaluated the Luger pistol in 7.65 mm Parabellum (.30 Luger in USA) and was adopted in 1900 as its military side arm, and designated as the Ordonnanzpistole 00 or OP00. Image File history File linksMetadata Arty08. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Arty08. ... The 7. ... A side arm is a small personal weapon that is typically worn on the body in a holster in such a way to permit immediate access and use. ...


In 1900 the US purchased 1000 Lugers (in 7.65 mm Parabellum) for field trials, after a Late 1890s/1900 competition that included the Colt M1900, Steyr Mannlicher M1894, and an entry from Mauser. Later, a small number were sampled in the then-new, more powerful 9 mm round. Field experience in the Philippines and ballistic tests would result in a requirement for still bigger and larger rounds. Further trials and testing of a variety of pistols by the US, including a DWM entry, would eventually lead to adoption of the M1911. The 7. ... Colt Model 1900 Photo by Adam Guns The Colt Model 1900 was a self-loading semi-automatic . ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mauser is the common name of a German arms manufacturer, maker of a line of bolt-action rifles from the 1870s to present. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ...


The DWM entries in the later (1906) competition in .45 ACP are among the rarest of all handguns. DWM, Savage, and Colt were the final three contenders after others were eliminated. DWM withdrew for reasons that are still debated—though the Army did place an order for 200 more samples. The final stages of the competition were left to Colt and Savage. The Luger did become a popular civilian firearm in the U.S. for the next two decades. All Luger pistols have collector value with some models, such as the "American Eagle" (having the eagle stamp over the chamber), being more desirable. The . ...


The Luger pistol was accepted by the German Navy in 1904, and in 1908 (as Pistole 08) by the German Army after the caliber was changed to 9 mm Parabellum because the 7.65 mm Parabellum cartridge was considered too weak. It replaced the older Reichsrevolver that was in service until then. A variant, the Lange Pistole 08, had a stock and longer barrel, and sometimes used with a 32 round drum magazine (Trommelmagazine 08); this model is also known as the 'Artillery Luger'. 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ball and hollowpoint 9mm Luger rounds The 9 mm Luger pistol cartridge (9 x 19 mm Parabellum, 9 x 19 mm NATO) was designed by firearms designer Georg Luger. ...


The Pistole 08 was the standard side arm for the German Army during both world wars, but was being replaced by the Walther P38 by 1938. By that time the Luger pistol was simply too expensive for military use due to its high standard of manufacturing. Another reason for the demise of the Luger pistol's military use may have been its sensitivity to dirt and dust resulting in malfunctions. At that time Mauser was manufacturing both the Walther P38 (under the "byf" code) and the Pistole 08. The Luger pistol was also used by the Soviet Union during World War II. Army The German Army (German: Heer  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Walther P38 The Walther P38 is a 9 mm pistol that was issued to NCOs and officers of the Wehrmacht near the end of World War II. It replaced the costly Luger P08. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mauser is the common name of a German arms manufacturer, maker of a line of bolt-action rifles from the 1870s to present. ...


Usage today

Although obsolete in many ways, the Luger is still sought after by collectors both for its sleek design, good accuracy, great durability and by its connection to Imperial and Nazi Germany. In Switzerland, the Luger pistol (OP00) is still being used in sports shooting events due to its accuracy. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Serial production of the Pistole 08 ended when Mauser refurbished a quantity of Lugers in 1999 for the pistol's 100 years anniversary, although they still produce a limited number each year for sale to collectors. Mauser is the common name of a German arms manufacturer, maker of a line of bolt-action rifles from the 1870s to present. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


The Luger was highly prized by American soldiers during World War II. Thousands were taken home as souvenirs and are still in circulation. Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33...


Despite the fact that Lugers are not rare, collectors often find themselves paying over US$ 1000 / €1200 for a World War I or World War II dated example, which has led to the production of modern replicas by several companies, including the American Eagle range produced by Mitchell Arms (sample of "Mitchell Arms" made Luger).


It is an interesting artifact of post-World War II ammunition development that in the United States, Lugers have often been maligned as being unreliable and prone to jamming. This is because typical factory-spec American 9 mm ammunition is nowhere near as hot as German military-spec ammunition—modern loadings in Europe are typically closer to old military loads. Currently the ammunition which Lugers were designed for falls into +P or +P+ SAAMI specs for 9 mm ammunition. [citation needed] Saami or SAAMI can stand for: Sami peoples Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Bibliography

  • Imperial Lugers by Jan C. Still (Still's Books - 1994)
  • Third Reich Lugers by Jan C. Still (Still's Books - 1988)
  • Weimar Lugers by Jan C. Still (Still's Books - 1993)
  • Lugers at Random by Charles Kenyon (Hand Gun Press - 1990)
  • Luger Mechanical Features by Gerard Henrotin (H&L Publishing - HLebooks.com - 2002)
  • The Luger Models by Gerard Henrotin (H&L Publishing - HLebooks.com - 2001)
  • The Luger Producers by Gerard Henrotin (H&L Publishing - HLebooks.com - 2001)
  • LugerAccessories by Gerard Henrotin (H&L Publishing - HLebooks.com - 2003)
  • DWM Luger by Gerard Henrotin (H&L Publishing - HLebooks.com - 2001)

References

  1. ^ Hogg, Ian V.; Weeks, John S. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (7th Edition), p.39. Krause Publications, 2000

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
P08 Parabellum

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... // Submachine Guns MP 18 I (WWI Bergmann) MP 28 (improved MP 18 I) MP 30(ö) (ex-Austrian S1-100 variant) MP 34(ö) (ex-Austrian Steyr Solothurn) MP 34 Bgm (Bergmann) MP 35 (Bergmann version of the MP.34 Bgm. ...

External links

German-made firearms and light weapons of World War II
Side arms (Pistole)
Mauser C96 | Luger | Walther P38 | Walther PPK | Sauer 38H | Mauser HSc
Rifles & carbines (Gewehr & Karabiner)
Karabiner 98k | Gewehr 43/Karabiner 43 | StG44/MP44 | FG42 | StG45(M)
Submachine guns ( Maschinenpistole )
Bergmann MP18 | MP38/MP40 "Schmeisser" | MP3008 "Volks MP"
Machine guns & other larger weapons
MG08 | MG34 | MG42 | Faustpatrone | Panzerfaust | Panzerschreck

Flammenwerfer 35 | Panzerbüchse 39 | Granatwerfer 36 | Granatwerfer 42 // Submachine Guns MP 18 I (WWI Bergmann) MP 28 (improved MP 18 I) MP 30(ö) (ex-Austrian S1-100 variant) MP 34(ö) (ex-Austrian Steyr Solothurn) MP 34 Bgm (Bergmann) MP 35 (Bergmann version of the MP.34 Bgm. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... A side arm is a small personal weapon that is typically worn on the body in a holster in such a way to permit immediate access and use. ... An NRA soldier with a gas mask and a Mauser M1932. ... The Walther P38 was a 9 mm pistol that was developed by Walther as the service pistol of the Wehrmacht at the beginning of World War II. It was intended to replace the costly Luger P08, the production of which was scheduled to end in 1942. ... The Walther PP series pistols include the Walther PP, PPK, and PPK/S. They are blowback-operated semiautomatic pistols manufactured by Carl Walther GmbH Sportwaffen in Germany or under license from Walther in France and the United States [1]. These pistols feature an exposed hammer, a double-action trigger mechanism... Image:Sauer 38H.jpg Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sauer 38H The Sauer 38H is a small pistol made in Germany prior to and during World War II. It feature a shrouded hammer, double-action trigger, single-column magazine, and a spring surrounding the barrel. ... Image:Mauser HSC.jpg Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mauser HSC The Mauser HSC is small pistol made in Germany prior to and during World War II and in various places after the war. ... It has been suggested that Break action be merged into this article or section. ... A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ... The Karabiner 98 Kurz (often abbreviated Kar98k or K98k) was a bolt-action rifle adopted as the standard infantry rifle in 1935 by the Wehrmacht, and was one of the final developments in the long line of Mauser military rifles. ... The Gewehr 43 or Karabiner 43 (G43, K43; Gew 43, Kar 43) was a semi-automatic rifle of Nazi Germany developed during World War II that was developed from the G41(W) but using a modified gas system somewhat similar to that of the Soviet Tokarev Tokarev SVT40. ... The Maschinenpistole 43, Maschinenpistole 44 and Sturmgewehr 44 (MP43, MP44 and StG44, respectively) were selective-fire automatic rifles developed in Nazi Germany during World War II as part of the Maschinenkarabiner (machine carbine) program. ... The Fallschirmjagergewehr 42, shown with magazine and detachable bayonet. ... Mauser StG45(M) The StG45(M) (aka Mauser Sturmgewehr 1945) was a prototype assault rifle developed by Mauser at the end of World War II, using a roller-delayed blowback mechanism. ... The MP5, a famous submachine gun, sees widespread use amongst those that can afford it. ... The MP18 was one of the first submachine guns. ... The MP40 (Maschinenpistole 40, literally, Machine pistol 40) was a submachine gun developed for and used extensively by Nazi Germany during World War II. The MP40 was a very well made weapon. ... The 9 millimetre MP 3008 was a German substitute standard submachine gun manufactured toward the end of World War II. The weapon was almost identical to the British Sten, except for its vertical magazine. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... MG08 with optical sight. ... The Maschinengewehr 34, or MG 34, was a German machine gun that was first produced and accepted for service in 1934, and first issued to units in 1935. ... The Maschinengewehr 42, or MG42 was a machine gun that was developed for and entered service with Germany in 1942, during World War II. The 7. ... The Faustpatrone (literally fist cartridge) was a German anti-tank weapon of early World War II, it was said to have been the prototype for the Panzerfaust (armored or tank fist). Much smaller in physical appearance, the Faustpatrone was actually heavier than the better known Panzerfaust. ... 4 Panzerfausts in the original casing, displayed in Helsinki Military Museum Panzerfaust. ... The Panzerschreck (German: tank terrorizer) was the popular name for the Raketenpanzerbüchse (rocket tank rifle, abbreviated to RPzB) an 88 mm calibre reusable anti-tank rocket launcher developed by the Germans in World War II. Another popular nick-name was Ofenrohr (stove pipe). It was given to infantry to... The Flammenwerfer 35 was a German flamethrower used on the Eastern Front during WWII to clear out trenches and buildings. ... Panzerbüchse (plural: Panzerbüchsen) is the German term for anti-tank rifle used in World War II. Literally it means tank rifle; here, the word Büchse is the term for rifle in sports or hunting jargon. ... The Granatenwerfer 36 (Literally, grenade thrower) (Official designation: 5cm leGrW 36) was a mortar used by Germany during World War II. Development started 1934 by Rheinmetall-Borsig AG and was adopted for service 1936. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Notable foreign-made infantry weapons
P.640(b) | Vis.35 | Vz.24/G24(t) | MG26(t) | Panzerbüchse 35(p)
German-made cartridges used by the Wehrmacht
7.92 x 57 mm | 7.63 x 25 mm Mauser | 7.92 mm Kurz | 7.65 mm Luger | 9 mm Luger

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In November 1894, Luger was in America to demonstrate the Borchardt C 93 to the U.S. Navy.
Luger´s family sold the house but maintained the right to live on the first floor until the last of the heirs had died.
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